常见兵器:弩

古兵器之一,机械发射的弓。据说,战国时期楚琴氏发明弩机,“横弓着臂,施机设枢,加之以力,可以及远”。宋代很注重发展弩,《宋史?兵志》有多处记载弩的制造和改进,时有踏张弩和床弩两种。踏张弩有黑漆弩、黄桦弩、白桦弩、雌华梢弩、跳蹬弩、木弩等。所用的箭有点钢、木羽、凤羽、朴头、三停等名称,比一般的箭坚牢。如木羽箭,杆和羽都是木制的,射中人身,牢不可拔,“去杆而镞留”。宋神宗熙宁元年(1068),李宏发明一种踏张弩,名叫神臂弓。《宋史》记载其形制性能说:“身长三尺三寸,弦长一尺五寸,箭木羽长数寸,射三百四十余步,入榆木半。”
Akindofancientweaponsandmechanicallyshootingbows.ThelegendhasitthatChuQininventedcrossbowsintheWarringStatesPeriod.“Puttingthecrossbowhorizontallyunderonearm,mountinganarrowonitandshootingthearrowfarwithstrength.”DevelopmentofcrossbowswasmuchemphasizedintheSongDynastyandtherearemanyrecordsaboutmanufactureandimprovementofcrossbowsintheHistoryoftheSongDynasty:MilitaryRecords.TherewereTazhangcrossbowsandChuangcrossbowsatthattime.Theformerincludesblackpaintcrossbows,yellowbirchcrossbows,whitebirchcrossbows,Cihuashaocrossbows,Tiaodengcrossbows,woodencrossbows,etc.Arrowsusedarecalledpointsteel,woodfeather,phoenixfeather,PutouandSantingandarefirmerthanordinaryarrows.Forexample,bothrodsandfeatureofwoodfeaturearrowsaremadeofwoodandthearrowscannotbepulledoutafterbeingshotintothebody.“Thearrowheadwillbeleftinthebodyevenaftertherodisremoved.”InthefirstyearofSongEmperorXiNing(1068),LiHonginventedakindofTaz…